Windshield displays (WSDs) are a promising technology for automotive applications. They easily allow to augment the capabilities of drivers or show content relevant for non-driving related activities. However, little information is available on how potential users would utilize these displays. Our research addresses user preferences for windshield displays in automated driving as well as the visual complexity of WSD applications. In a first step, we conducted a user study (N=31) on user preferences for windshield displays in automated driving. Participants could freely choose their preferred positions and sizes of multiple windows on an artificial windshield display. Our goal was to find out where potential drivers would like certain applications to appear. We further distinguished between two levels of automation: conditional and full. Initial results of our experiment, presented in the form of heatmaps, indicate differences considering the level of vehicle automation and reveal the preferred areas for various content types. This could help designers of automotive applications to enhance the usability of their apps.

The effect of visual appearance of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) of both desktop webpages and mobile applications is well documented in the literature. However, less research has focused on automotive interfaces, especially windshield displays. Designers strive for an enjoyable user experience (UX) and put a significant efforts into designing graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to be both usable and aesthetic. We intend to minimize their efforts; with this purpose in mind, we want to introduce automatic metrics of GUI qualities. These visual complexity metrics should enable designers to iterate their designs more quickly. We plan to propose a set of visual complexity metrics aimed to quantify the visual complexity of automotive WSD applications.



2018 A. Riegler, C. Holzmann – Measuring Visual User Interface Complexity of Mobile Applications with Metrics – INTERACTING WITH COMPUTERS, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2018.
[oxford university press]
2018 A. Riegler, P. Wintersberger, A. Riener, C. Holzmann – Investigating User Preferences for Windshield Displays in Automated Vehicles – Proceedings of the 7th ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays (PerDis 2018), Munich, Germany, 2018 [acm] [pdf]


Andreas Riegler, Clemens Holzmann
Department of Mobility & Energy, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Austria
{andreas.riegler, clemens.holzmann} [at]

Philipp Wintersberger, Andreas Riener
University of Applied Sciences Ingolstadt, Germany
{philipp.wintersberger, andreas.riener} [at]